From emergency sanitation to compost business in Guiuan in Philippines
Adviser Faecal Sludge Management with ACTED and UNICEF, Guiuan, Philippines: (1) Reconnaissance survey sanitation systems implemented by International NGOs funded by UNICEF in Guiuan after Haiyan typhoon, (2) analysis existing situation through interaction with the local population UNICEF, ACTED and municipalities (3) development of a strategy to mitigate any environmental pollution and to turn faecal sludge management into a local business producing (vermi-) compost to be sold to farmers. See article below from the ACTED news site.
Faecal Sludge Business secondary towns Rwanda (GGGI)
Specialist Faecal Sludge Management for Global Green Growth Institute: (1) Assessment the sector, agencies involved and the market for deployment of faecal sludge treatment technologies in four secondary cities in Rwanda; (2) Identification of options for faecal sludge management (emptying, collection, transportation, treatment), study four sites, assessment investment, operation and maintenance costs; (3)Identification of potentials for valorisation of waste streams to strengthen the revenues; (4) Develop business cases for bankable projects that address GGGI’s strategic objectives of green growth.
Testing emptying septic tank
Sanitation = business
Technological strategy to improve WASH in Informal Tented Settlements Syrian Refugees
Opportunities to scale up sanitation businesses in Africa
Through WASTE COOP and Africa Funded, together with Aqua for All, I investigated the opportunities to scale up sanitation businesses in Africa. This initiative of the Toilet Board Coalition was started by Unilever. We screened 12 companies and investigated readiness to scale, viability of the plans and how co-creation and cross selling opportunities can be beneficial for the innovative entrepreneurs. We presented the results in London to the board of the Toilet Board Coalition. In September 2016, the Coalition will announce which ventures are selected for an accelerator program.
Feasibility study Lake Victoria Basin
Faecal Sludge Management Specialist at ViaWater Program
VIA Water supports projects with innovative solutions for water problems facing cities in seven African countries: Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda and South Sudan. Through the programme, these solutions can be brought to life: with financial support, but also with the help of the (online) learning community.
I support the programme throughout the process by connecting partners and providing expertise on faecal sludge management through regular updates and through webinars.
Wastewater expert UNICEF Lebanon
Through the Disaster Surge Support Facility together with Daily Business (Gert de Bruijne) and Middle East Partners (Ghada Zeidan) I conducted a reconnaissance survey wastewater and sanitation services Informal Tented Settlements. We also analysed the existing situation through interaction with refugees, UNICEF, International and Local NGOs, Water Establishments, Municipalities, Ministry of Energy and Water, Ministry of Environment, private sector, service providers. We developed a technological strategy to mitigate any environmental pollution and to reduce the operating costs by 80%
Team Leader Feasibility Studies High Priority Investments Lake Victoria Basin Integrated Water Resources Management Project
The Lake Victoria Basin Integrated Water Resource Management Programme with High Priority Investments is to contribute to the improvement of the water quality and to a sustainable management of the Lake Victoria Basin. I am responsible for Work Package 2: Shortlisting of High Priority Investments and the preparation of 4 Feasibility Studies in line with the KfW project appraisal guidelines: wastewater collection and treatment in Mwanza (Tanzania), Faecal Sludge Management in Kigali (Rwanda), treatment of an open sewer (Nakivubo channel) by means of Constructed Wetlands in Kampala (Uganda) and sanitation improvement in informal settlements through a delegated management model in Kisumu (Kenya).
Field visit informal settlements
Result faecal sludge treatment for application in emergency situations published
Within the S(P)EEDKITS project an extensive research for faecal sludge sanitizing methods has taken place in Blantyre, Malawi. Three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge. The result have now been published in IJERPH (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health), The article, "Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation", is available here.
Mid-Term Review Young Expert Programme (YEP) Water
The YEP Water aims to support the continued availability of international professionalism and expertise in the Netherlands water sector. YEP Water is a public private partnership between the Netherlands Water Partnership and MoFA and started in 2013 for a 5-year period. The Mid Term Review aims at gathering conclusions and lessons learned halfway to help the programme to reach it’s full potential.
Research in Malawi
Field visit Benin
Sanitation Marketing in FINISH INK project
On behalf of WASTE Advisers, I supported the FINISH INK Project (Financial Inclusion Improves Sanitation and Health IN Kenya) in sanitation marketing. The project expands access to and demand for sanitation facilities through financial inclusion in a sustainable way. In July 2015, I developed and implemented orientation modules on key sanitation marketing and communication strategies and tools tailored to the objects of FINISH INK. In addition, I supported the development of a comprehensive sanitation marketing strategy as well as a capacity building plan aimed at strengthening the demand for and supply of improved sanitation.
Bonaire Sewerage Project
Round table discussion with Kamal Kar on slippage and challenges post Open Defecation Free phase
The Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) resulted in an increase of sanitation coverage worldwide. But, what happens once a region has been declared 'ODF' (Open Defecation Free)? How is usage, operation and maintenance organised and guaranteed? Together with Plan Nederland and the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, I organised - on behalf of WASTE - a round table discussion on the 'slippage' and the challenges of the 'post ODF' period. Our guest of honour was the chairman of the CLTS Foundation Dr. Kamal Kar, from Kolkata, India. He shared his vision with us regarding the success factors, while PLAN presented her study on slippage. See presentation and Kamal Kar's book 'Promising Pathways' on the experiences in Madagascar.
Improving sanitation through Service Level Agreements (Sponsored by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and DFID) (WASTE)
On behalf of WASTE and in close cooperation with the Blantyre City Council in Malawi, we studied how sanitation in urban areas can be improved by a more thorough involvement of the private sector. Our project’s scope is threefold: (1) profitable Service Level Agreements (SLAs), (2) city wide coverage and (3) covering the full sanitation chain: from toilet to valorisation of faecal sludge. We studied the successes and failures of existing SLAs, we identified the ‘sticks’ and ‘carrots’ to increase the motivation of the population to use SLAs including local rules and regulations / building code and the ‘six principles of persuasion’ (Cialdini) and to increase the motivation of the service providers and the government. We assessed the possibilities to increase the technical and financial capacity of service providers (more efficient equipment and meso-financing with guarantee funds). In 2015 we will organise the implementing of Sanitation SLAs for 100 Public Toilets, 10 Desludging Service Providers and 5 Faecal Sludge Treatment units.
Coordinating the cooperation between Brabant Water and SONEB / ORIO Parakou
From November 2012 through April 2016, I coordinated and initiated activities as part of the Water Operator Partnership between Brabant Water (The Netherlands) and La Société Nationale des Eaux (SONEB) Cotonou, Bénin. We identified the needs and priorities, developed mutual understanding and exploring the possibilities to set-up a water meter repair shop and to improving water meter reading practices (hand held terminals). We prepared all paperwork to secure a € 10 mln. ORIO grant (Facility for Infrastructure Development) and a € 13.5 mln. loan for drinking water in Parakou: rehabilitation of Barrage d’Okpara, rehabilitation of water treatment works and extension of drinking water distribution system. To facilitate the process we have engaged two Young Expert (YEPpers) who were mentored by me. We have also engaged the services of RoyalHaskoningDHV to prepare the Project Documents.
Innovative desludging (WASTE)
Equipment tested (WASTE)
The mainstream technology of vacuum tankers is inefficient when it comes to emptying pit latrines as the latrines are difficult to access and contain sludge that is semi-solid and full of rubbish. As part of the ESP and SPEEDKITS projects we tested different types of equipment and developed an efficient way to fluidise the sludge, to fish out the rubbish and to empty the latrines.
Lab research on faecal sludge treatment (WASTE)
Reconnaissance Study Innovative Sanitation Facilities and Treated Effluent Reuse Rural Egypt
For the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands Water Partnership and Egyptian/Dutch High Level Water Panel I studied the feasibility of promoting the application of innovative sanitation facilities and treated effluent reuse for rural areas in Egypt by: (1) Reviewing existing proposals, (2) Field visits and quick scan of potential project areas, (3) Identification of innovative sanitation and wastewater reuse approaches applicable in Egypt, (4) Assessment potential added value Dutch Water Sector, (5) Assessment potential funding source for setting up a business case and (6) Outline feasibility studies.
Floating pod option
Core adviser Water and Sanitation Netherlands Embassy in Cotonou on behalf of the NWP
Starting September 2015, I am seconded at the Netherlands Water Partnership (NWP). I support the Netherlands Embassy in Cotonou (Benin) in the elaboration and implementation of the multi-annual strategic plan in cooperation with the Dutch water sector. In addition I inform and advise the Dutch water sector regarding the (business) opportunities in Benin. I also contribute to the positioning of the Dutch water sector in Benin in a sustainable way and define strengths and added values of the Dutch water and sanitation sector in fulfilling the water and sanitation needs in Benin.
Sanitation Marketing course participants
Final Evaluation of the Bonaire Sewerage and Sanitation Project
On behalf of EuropeAid / European Commission Delegation I did an independent assessment of the performance of the Bonaire Sewerage and Sanitation Project implemented to safeguard Bonaire’s marine environment (coral reefs). I collected data on the vacuum sewerage system, wastewater treatment by means of Sequential Batch Reactor and irrigation by means of treated effluent. Based on the collected data and interviews, I made an analysis and judgement of the system. The findings and recommendations for the present system were presented to the stakeholders. Finally I recommended an appropriate sanitation approach for isolated islands for future projects.
Participants round table discussion with Kamal Kar
Evaluation multi-annual water and sanitation program in Benin (PPEA2) & prolongation.
The Netherlands Embassy in Cotonou, Benin in cooperation with the Water & Sanitation Program (WSP) from the World Bank in Benin and the European Union has requested us to evaluate the current multi-annual program on water and sanitation in Benin, West Africa (PPEA2). We were also requested to write the program document (PRODOC) for a possible prolongation up to 2020. We are a team of 4 expatriates and 4 Beninese experts and we are working closely with all relevant stakeholders in Benin. Our endproduct includes the Terms of References for technical assistance. The PRODOC of the current PPEA2 program can be found below.
Service Level Agreement for Market Toilet
Removing water hyacinths from Barrage d'Okpara
Developing innovative approaches Emergency Sanitation (WASTE)
On behalf of WASTE, I am managing WASTE's activities in the field of Emergency Sanitation. We were involved in two projects: the OFDA/USAID sponsored 'Emergency Sanitation Project' (ESP) and the EU funded SPEEDKITS project and are currently preparing phase 2 of the ESP.
WASTE is working together with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and Oxfam GB. ESP aims to increase the global understanding of current and future emergency sanitation and to propose new concepts and modular technologies for safe excreta disposal in emergency settings that are applicable in a variety of situations. A menu of options has been made available through the development of specialized emergency sanitation modules, which are rapid to deploy and are cost -effective when compared with traditional solutions. Responsible for desluding in difficult areas, alternative faecal sludge treatment options, urinals, anti-stick material, local production of latrine slabs and biodegradable plastic utilisation. See: www.emergencysanitationproject.org. S(p)eedkits is a EU Seventh Framework Programme project on the rapid deployment of shelters, facilities and medical care following a major disaster. WASTE is task leader for the development of flexible sanitation systems. Responsible for specifications, definition of water and sanitation kits, conceptual and actual design, research and development, testing. See: www.speedkits.eu
Innovative treatment of faecal sludge in emergency settings
When it comes to emergency sanitation, the biggest challenge is how to sanitise and stabilise the faecal sludge with a short period. As part of the ESP and SPEEDKITS project, WASTE - in close cooperation with Unesco IHE, Delft University of Technology and Polytechnic of the University of Malawi - has developed three practical methodologies based on lime, urea and/or lactic acid. They were tested in laboratories in Delft and Blantyre and tested in the field in Blantyre Malawi by Katie (Australia), Lobke (The Netherlands), Dennis (Zambia), Happiness (South-Africa) and Elliet (Nicaraqua). See their theses and findings below.
(How) does it work?
Sanitation Options flooded areas (Sante Project, WASTE)
On behalf of WASTE, I prepared an overview of practical sanitation solutions for areas that are frequently flooded in Bangladesh as part of the SANTE project with Unesco IHE and IRC. See report below.
WASH sector consultant Emergency Relief for Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in The Hague requested me to prepare a Feasibility Study on structural/ organizational modalities in the Netherlands for (1) coordination of surge support to international emergency structures such as Global WASH Cluster and for (2) the national coordination of emergency response by the Dutch Water Sector. See report below.
Sanitation training for Unicef WASH Cluster partners in Palestine
For the Unicef-led WASH Cluster, I developed and executed a training in the field of household sanitation and wastewater reuse in the Occupied Palestine Territory:
• Assessment sanitation conditions in the field
• An appropriate sustainable sanitation technology mix
• A 3-day training course for WASH Cluster Partners in Ramallah and Gaza
• Training manual with elaborate description and design approach for selected dry, wet, community based sanitation and septage management, see documents to the right
• Focus on immediate improvements in the field and grey water reuse.
Water and wastewater consultancy Eco-Region Pemongkong / Masterplan Tanjung Ringgit Lombok - Indonesia
Invited by Joachim Elbe Architektur (Germany) and Atelier Dreiseitl (Ueberlingen, Germany), I joined a group of 25 experts to prepare an integrated master plan for the development of an Eco region in Tanjung Ringgit on the island of Lombok in Indonesia.
The area is extremely dry because of the limestone underground and the area was over exploited in the past and has poor soils. Hence, we developed innovative water retention systems, comprehensive (waste-) water reuse and paid a lot of attention to the valorisation of urine and excreta. Amongst others by proposing Terra Preta Sanitation to add fertile soils.
See reports below.
Pecha Kucha Rio Aan de Maas 30 May 2012: Maas(K)akkers on Terra Preta Sanitation
I did a PechaKucha during this Sustainability Event. PechaKucha is a presentation methodology in which 20 slides are shown for 20 seconds each. So I had just 6 minutes and 40 seconds to explain my ideas before the next took the stage.
My Pecha Kucha was called Maas(K)akkers.
Drafting inter ministry transfer document on mineral planning guidance in the Netherlands 1960-2011 (Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment)
The Dutch government has decided to terminate her guidance in the planning of minerals such as sand, gravel and clay. It is felt important to document the knowledge, insight and experiences in an objective way so that in the future it can be used as a reference. Based on interviews and the study of reports, I prepared a 100 page transfer document prepared on the developments between 1960 to 2011. See report below (in Dutch).
Unicef WASH Cluster training
Position Paper PPP
In March 2012 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs published a € 150 mln. Public Private Partnership facility in the field of Water and Sanitation. The Dutch WASH Alliance shared its experiences in the field of sustainable WASH programs. I prepared a short policy paper with 10 important lessons based on interviews with the main alliance members.
Mineral planning in The Netherlands
Wastewater expert master planning Bogor, Surabaya en Makassar (Indonesia)
The Government of Australia through the Australian Agency funds for International Development (AusAID) supports the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII). IndII aims to assist national and sub- national agencies to improve infrastructure in Indonesia. I guided and supported the teams of MottMacDonald Indonesia in the preparation of master plans for the development of wastewater infrastructure for Bogor, Surabaya and Makassar including supporting feasibility studies, institutional and financial analysis, and capacity building of local governments. A key requirement was the balancing of the investment needs with the capacity of local government to share in the financing of the investment within the overall framework of Indonesia’s policy for assistance for development of wastewater infrastructure. Responsible for: Interim Master Plans 3 cities • Feasibility Study Reports 3 cities • Capacity Building Plans 2 cities • Final Master Plans 3 cities • Final report. See reports below.
Septage Management Station
Process management WASH Alliance International
The WASH Alliance International works towards a society where everybody has access to sustainable (drinking) water and sanitation. Simavi is the lead agency and reinforces the existing cooperation with AMREF, ICCO, WASTE, RAIN and Akvo. The effectiveness and efficiency of project execution is enhanced and there is mutual learning. The programme 2011 – 2015 is focused on Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nepal, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2010 I was managing the processes of the alliance. More specifically, my task was to:
- Guidance and steering the strategic choices of the alliance.
- Elaboration and assembling the country specific programmes.
- Setting up organizational structure.
- Managing the process of preparing all the requirements involved in requesting € 68 million from the Dutch Government.
Innovative water storage in the urban quarter Laak (Municipality of the Hague Waterkader Haaglanden)
Our climates changes; even in The Hague. The result is more intensive rainfall. Traditional measures like pipes and pumps are insufficient to keep the feet of the Laak population dry as the area is very urbanized. We have studied the possibilities to cope with increased volumes of water and improving the living conditions and the environment at the same time, using both the private and public space. The report has a long-list of all possible and all innovative technologies and a short-list of 11 solutions which fit the conditions of Laak. These have been elaborated and we developed an action plan and approach how these solutions can be implemented. Not only from physical/ technological point of view but also for a community/ social behaviour point of view. Here we used our behavioral model based on the theories of Poiesz and Cialdini.
Feasibility Study / Environmental Impact Assessment Sewage Treatment Plant Yogyakarta
On behalf of IWACO and as part of the Swiss Development Cooperation Yogyakarta Urban Development Project (YUDP) I executed the feasibility study for a sewage treatment plant in Yogyakarta. The recommended technology was the aerated pond system. The sewage treatment plant was built by JICA according to the design of this study. A USAID financed study on wastewater treatment in Indonesia praises the system as one of the best working systems in Indonesia. See USAID report below.
Bulk water from Surinam
Ini 2008 and 2009 I participated in a wide IMSA led consortium of Dutch and Surinamese partners to realise a project for sustainable water collection in Surinam. The goal of this initiative is to boost the Surinamese economy in a sustainable way.
Each year, the large Surinamese rivers release two hundred billion cubic metres of fresh water in the Atlantic Ocean. At the same time, in the Caribbean, large quantities of fresh water are being distilled from seawater. The latter being a cause for large CO2 emissions, polluting the ocean with brine, and families having to pay a price for drinking water four to five times higher than the price paid in Europe.
I studied how the Surinam surface water could be collected, purified, transported and traded to clients in the Caribbean and how fresh water could also be supplied to the city of Paramaribo. On the one hand, this will make the city less dependent on its groundwater sources, which are increasingly contaminated with brackish water. On the other hand, it will help to keep a more permanent pressure on the city’s drinking water distribution system, and thus improve the quality of this system.
See summary below.
Innovative urban water management
Innovative urban water management